All students must demonstrate competence in at least one secondary skill or area that pertains to their primary philosophical training. In many cases, a skill will be adequate preparation in a language other than English, or a passing grade in an advanced logic course (one beyond the 200-level). In other cases, it may be some work in another discipline (e.g., linguistics, cognitive science, mathematics, etc.), or a philosophical field complementary to their principal specialization.By the end of the first year, students should declare to the DGS what his or her proposed competence (or competences) will be, and the DGS will arrange a course of study (or an equivalent) that will demonstrate the needed level of training. In normal cases, it is expected that the student will achieve this goal before being admitted to candidacy for the Ph.D.